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Istanbul City

Istanbul, the city of empires and kingdoms, capital of Roma, Byzantines and Ottoman Empire, heart of the whole country  whole Turkey. Each nation who carried the center of civilizations into this city had tried to invest and try to make the best examples of cultural and artistic  reflections, and had signed / labeled the values which decorates the Bosporus / Bosphorus that connects  Black Sea to Marmara Sea.

The history and historical background of Istanbul goes back up to 30,000 years from our present days and the very first settlement of Istanbul is the Yarimburgaz Cave next to Kucukcekmece Lake.

Istanbul did not loose it's popularity of being the city of capitals with it's history, cultures, strategical location natural structure  and with it's nature. While one side of Istanbul reaches to Asia and another side reaches to Europe, Istanbul has been a bridge between Europe and Asia for all men kinds and humanity.  The city carries out it's mission with success with two bridges established during republication of Turkey.

Istanbul will be European Capital of Culture in 2010. it will also held and be host for many of international projects and event on the top of World Culture Agenda, and it will represent culture of Turkey to whole world .

It's being hold many small and big events in Istanbul such as, International Istanbul Music Festival, Istanbul Theater Festival, International Istanbul Exhibition, International Bosphorus Festival, Turks World Modern Literature Days, International Istanbul Film Festival, International CRR Piano Festival, International CRR Child's Festival, International CRR Youth Festival, Conquers Celebration,  Sile Bezi Culture and Art Celebration, Kartal International Culture and Art Celebration, Internation CRR Mystic Music Festival... and many more celebrations, events are held in Istanbul.

This city located in Marmara Region of Turkey is the biggest city of the country. It has been a host for various empires through out the history ,and now it is the center of culture and finance of the country.  It has been capital for various empires ever since it was established and its one of the most crowded cities of Europe and Turkey.

Istanbul is one of the oldest cities of the world as well, and was capital city of Roma Empire from 330 to 395, was capital of Byzantium / Byzantine Empire from 395 to 1261 and 1261 to 1453 , was capital of Latins from 1204 to 1261 and lastly it was the capital city of Ottoman Empire durin 1454 to 1922.

Istanbul is surrounded by seas on north and south  Black Sea on it's north part, Marmara Sea on it's south, Corlu, Tekirdag, Cerkezkoy and Saray Town on it's west and lastly Kandira town, Kocaeli Gebze Bay on it's east part are neighbor of the city.

Places to visit in Istanbul

Blue Mosque and Hagia Sophia (Saint Sophi / Aya Sofya) Museum stands and faces each other as if they are competing each other in   Sultanahmet area (old town) of Istanbul where the historic memories are most lived and remembered. Yerebatan Sarnici / Basilica Cistern, Historical Hippodrome (At Meydani) , III. Ahmed Fountain, German Fountain, Obelisk (Dikilitas), Serpent Column (Delphi / Plataean Tripod, Serpentine Column) are only some of the monuments, ruins and places being visited by huge number of visitors each year coming from all over world. Topkapi Museum is one of Istanbul's Masterpiece , being the Administration Palace of Ottoman Empire and house of members of Ottoman Dynasty until 19.Th century and afterward it was turned into a museum in 1924.

While Eminonu host these popular and histortical places; Yeni Camii (New Mosque), Rustempasa Mosque, Egyptian Market (Spice Bazaar),  Tahtakale, Historical PTT Office, Sirkeci Train Station (Orient Express) and Sepetciler Summer Palace it takes the crowded population of Istanbul into it's border from Beyazit Center, Fire Tower and the crowded visitors of Grand Bazaar / Kapalicarsi. Suleymaniye Mosque which Architect Sinan said "it's my foreman's monument" continues to listen the city everyday in middle of this magnificence.

Halic - Golden Horn (Altin Boynuz) where it has the most of the city wall along it's shore, being left as a dirty place just opposite of it's beautiful past history is now totally out of this image and has been taken care quite well, and became one of most popular place of the city with it's Fener with it's cultural variety, Balat , Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Fener Roman Boys School, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Istanbul (Fener / Phanar Roman Patriarchate). Pierre Loti Hill which gives an opportunity to watch  Eyup District which is referred as the district of mosques and silhouette view of Halic / Golden Horn from the top is another highlight and hot spot of touristic places.

The new bridge which had been constructed in the place of historic Galata Bridge which was burned down in 1992, connects Eminonu , Karakoy and Beyoglu area to each other with it's new modern image and view.

Istiklal Street (Taksim), while being a meeting point of centuries with it's historic old buildings that take place in every corner, with it's churches, synagogues,  palaces, caravansaries, passages and with it's bale saloons, it is also the center of international culture - art activities, nostalgic tram is an ideal and convenient choose for those who would like to explore the city from one side to another. Taksim and Harbiye area where there are more and more Cabarets, Modern Discos and Clubs and Jazz Clubs and of those Cicek Pasaji / Passage and Nevizade Street is more popular because of their historical and antique structure and atmosphere streets. Kumkapi and Tarabya Districts with their fish restaurants and taverns and Ortakoy District with it's Bars, Clubs and Discos are some of the other districts which gives color and more joy to the night life of the city. Anadolu Kavagi and Rumeli Kavagi with their unique and splendid fish restaurants are a taste and flavor point of Istanbul with magnificent Bosphorus Landscape.

Galata Tower, where Hezarfan Ahmet Celebi had flown with wooden made wings in 1638 is a unique meeting point and place of interest for those who would like to enjoy the unique and spectacular panoramic view / landscape of Istanbul. Dolmabahce Palace where Mustafa Kemal Ataturk spend his last days , Ortakoy Mosque  with a location of having the Bosphorus on it's foot, Karakoy, Tophane and Galata are only some of the districts represents the light of the city.

Museums of Istanbul; Archeology Museum, Military Museum, Ataturk Museum, St. Irene Church (Aya Irini), Santa Sophia (St. Sophia / Hagia Sophia / Ayasofya) Museum, I. Mahmud Library in Ayasofya, Mosaic Museum, Navy Museum, Galata Mevlevihanesi, Pammakaristos Museum (Fethiye Mosque),   Fine Arts Museum, Aviation Museum, Monument of Imrahor (Ilyas Bey Mosque) St. Studios Monastery Hagios Ionnes Podromos Basilica, Chora Church (Kariye / Chora Museum) , Orhan Kemal Museum,  Rumelihisari / Rumeli Hisari, Anadoluhisari, Yedikulehisari, Rahmi Koc Industry , Sedberk Hanim, Sehir / City, Tekel, Topkapi Palace Museum, Turkish Carpet , Turkish Islamic Arts, Turbeler / Tombs, Yildiz Sarayi / Yildiz Palace Museums and Basilica Cisterns.

Schools / Religious Schools (Madrasah): Rustem Pasa Madrasah was established for Rustem Pasa by Architect Mimar Sinan in 1550, Koca Sinan Pasa was established in 1594 and is not Economy University in our prsent days, Abdulhalim Ankaravi in 1707, Kuyucu Murat Pasa 1606 - 1610 and Hasan Pasa Madrasah

Caravansaries and historical buildings; Kalcilar, Balkapani, Kucuk Yeni, Burmali, Saksi, Buyuk Valide, Serpus, Ali Pasa,  Tashan, Cuhaci, Yildiz and Cebeci Hani most of these caravansaries and historical structures were constructed during 16.Th and 17.Th centuries.

Bazaars exotic markets; Egyptian Market / Spice Bazaar,  Safahlar Carsisi / Old - New Book Stores, Bakircilar Bazaar and Grand Bazaar.

Synagogues;  Neve Shalom Synagogue is located in Galata Distrirct and is one of the most splendid / magnificent synagogues of Istanbul and the meaning of it's name is "Oasis of peace", Askenazi Synagogue , Yanbolu Synagogue, Zulfaris Synagogue, Italian Synagogue and Ahrida Synagogue.

Towers; Beyazit Tower first established in 1749, Dolmabahce Clock Tower (1890 - 1895), Galata Tower first established by Republic Genoa  before it  had been through out innumerable destruction damages , Kiz Kulesi Maiden Tower is established in a small island near by Uskudar 2475 B.C.  by Byzantines, and although it had undertake numerators missions through out centuries and ages it still protects it's attribute and specialty of being a lighthouse for ships and boats passing by, Camlica Television Tower andYildiz Clock Tower.

Castles Forts; Anadolu - Anatolia Fort, Rumeli -  Rumelia Castle and Yedikule Castle Fort.

Mosques; Blue Mosque (Sultanahmet), Feneri Isa (Constantine Lips Monastery), Arap, Ortakoy Mosque, Dolmabahce  Bezmi Alem Valide Sultan, Bebek, Little Hagia Sophi (Sergius and Bacchus Church), Emirgan, Rustempasa Mosque, Beylerbeyi, Bodrum (Myrelaion Church), Iskele, Zincirlikuyu, Altunizade, Koca Mustafa Pasa (Haghious Andreas Church), Hirkai Serif, Aga, Tesvikiye, Gul, Zuhtu Pasa, Vefa Kilise (Haghios Theodoros Church), Sultan Valide, Kilise Zetrek, Piyalepasa, Ayazma, Zeynep Sultan, Murat Pasa, Sebsefa Hatun, Molla Celebi,  Nusratiye, Molla Aski, Sinanpasa, Azapkapi, Iskenderpasa, Ivaz Efendi, Rum Mehmet Pasa, Firuzaga, Yildiz, Bali Pasa, Osmanaga, Aziz Mustafa, Takkeci Ibrahim Aga and Hudai Mosques are only some of the great mosques of the city.

Some of the palaces; Dolmabahce Palace, Ciragan Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace and Yildiz Palace.

Pavilions and summer palaces; Sepetciler Pavilion, Aynalikavak Pavilion, Florya Ataturk Sea Pavilion, Aynalikavak Summer Palace, Filizli, Kucukcu, Hidiv , Ihlamur and Maslak are some of the important pavilions and summer palaces of the area.

Ruins; Polenezkoy this natural park in Beykoz District is one of the most delighted place of Istanbul with it's genuine  structure / architecture , rich forests  and with it's different culture and delicious kitchen.

Buyukada, Kilyos, Beykoz, Cilingoz, Sile, Karaburun, Agva, Silivri, Poyrazkoy and Sariyer are some of the places where you can find nice beaches and swim in the city. Two big marinas in Atakoy and Fenerbahce has a big potential for yacht tourism  of the city.

Ciftalan, Catalca, Silivri, Aydos and Karaburun provide nice racecourses and areas for paragliding.
There are two big golf course in Kemerburgaz Sariyer and Silivri constructed in international standards for golf lovers.
The city because of the convenience of transportation it has, modern hotel and accommodation opportunities  and because of natural and historical beauties / artifacts it has makes it the biggest congress tourism center of the whole country.

Kucukcekmece, Florya, Kilyos, Silivri, Bakirkoy, Sile, Buyukcekmece and Atakoy districts are some of the mail camping areas available for camp lovers. Belgrade Forest is the largest forest area of the city and gives an opportunity of Istanbul daily tours for whose who likes to escape from the metropolitan crowded life and jump into nature and for a great picnic area. There are also some nice dams in this forest.  Arboretum of Ataturk founded in the forest is designed for scientist and educational purposes and is in the status of Istanbul's live plant museum.

Some of the most important structures, bridges and aqueducts mostly constructed by Architect Sinan; Moglova Aqueduct, Mualla Aqueduct, Uzun / Long Aqueduct, Sultan Suleyman the magnificent aqueduct, Bahcekoy and Guzelce Aqueducts are some of the  must-see places.

Tuzla is the center of Thermal tourism and Spa tourism of Istanbul for having 2 big thermal spas.

Provinces of Istanbul.
Fatih, Adalar, Gazi Osman Pasa, Avcilar, Gungoren, Bagcilar, Kadikoy, Bakirkoy, Kagithane, Bayrampasa, Kartal, Besiktas, Kucukcekmece, Beykoz, Maltepe, Beyoglu, Pendik, Buyukcekmece, Sariyer, Catalca, Silivri, Eminonu, Sultanbeyli, Esenler, Sisli, Eyup, Sile, Uskudar, Umraniye, Zeytinburnu and Tuzla

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